At the end of the nineteenth century, the Trinity Church did not have enough space for all its visitors, so the municipal head Pavlo Kharytonenko suggested to the spiritual department to build a new church next to it for his own money. The church had to resemble St. Isaac's Cathedral in St. Petersburg.
In the years 1901-1914, the Trinity Cathedral was erected on the project of the Sumy architect Gustav Scholz. The project of a mosaic floor of a temple was developed by the architect Oleksiy Shchusev. Well-known artists Nivinsky, Petrov-Vodkin and Nesterov worked on the interior, stained glass and the iconostasis of the temple.
After 1917, the cathedral survived difficult times, it was repeatedly closed. During the Second World War, the premises were damaged. In Soviet times, almost 30 years, in the cathedral, there was a warehouse of haberdashery goods. From 1988 to 2001, there was the organ hall of the Sumy Regional Philharmonic. Now the temple is in the possession of the community of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate.